Long Service Life Silicon Nitride Combined Silicon Carbide Thermal Shock Resistant Castables

With the development of the cement industry, in order to adapt to the requirements of large-scale, long-lasting, energy-saving and environmentally friendly cement industry, the requirements for refractory materials for the lining of large and medium-sized cement kilns are becoming increasingly stringent. Existing refractory materials can no longer meet production needs in actual use. Especially at the kiln mouth, grate cooler, coal injection pipe, smoke chamber, top of preheater and other parts. Due to high-temperature thermal stress, rapid cooling and rapid hot air flow impact, high-temperature cement clinker wear and high-temperature gas alkali corrosion, it is easy to cause cracking, peeling and wear of the lining, making it difficult to meet the requirement of the kiln age being more than one year. Moreover, the corundum-silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite castable used in the tuyere belt of the ironmaking blast furnace can be poured and constructed quickly. However, its alkali resistance and thermal shock stability cannot meet the requirements for refractory materials for large and medium-sized cement kiln linings.

Silicon Nitride Combined Silicon Carbide Castable
Silicon Nitride Combined Silicon Carbide Castable

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    Therefore, it has become a primary task to prepare a refractory material with strong thermal shock stability, high compressive strength, small thermal expansion coefficient, low thermal conductivity, good alkali resistance and long service life. Long-life silicon nitride combined with silicon carbide thermal shock-resistant castables solves the above technical problems for the blast furnace and cement industry.

    Silicon Nitride Combined with Silicon Carbide Thermal Shock Resistant Castable

    This castable uses silicon nitride and silicon carbide as the main raw materials and is also supplemented with corundum, activated alumina and other materials. Using composite explosion-proof materials and additives, silicon nitride combined with silicon carbide thermal shock-resistant castables are made. Its raw material composition is as follows:

    • Silicon nitride 150-300 mesh, 5-20%.
    • Black silicon carbide 100-200 mesh, 10-30%.
    • Green silicon carbide 150-300 mesh, 5-20%.
    • Tabular corundum, 20-30%.
    • White corundum, 15-30%.
    • Activated alumina 300-600 mesh, 3-12%.
    • Metal aluminum powder 80-150 mesh, 0. 5-3%.
    • Heat-resistant steel fiber 5%.
    • Metal silicon powder 100-200 mesh, 2-8%
    • Aluminate cement 3-6%.

    The silicon nitride combined with silicon carbide castable has excellent high-temperature stability, high thermal shock stability (water cooling, 1100°C ≥ 30 times), and high alkali corrosion resistance (level 2 or above). Excellent normal and high-temperature strength and high-temperature material wear resistance. Suitable as long-life (more than one year) large and medium-sized cement kiln lining materials. It is especially suitable for key parts with harsh working conditions such as the kiln mouth, coal injection pipe, cement kiln smoke chamber, grate cooler, and top of the preheater of large and medium-sized cement kilns.

    Rongsheng Silicon Nitride Combined Silicon Carbide Castable
    Rongsheng Silicon Nitride Combined Silicon Carbide Castable

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      Analysis of the Causes of Peeling, Cracking, and Peeling of Castables for Cement Kiln Burner Linings

      The burner is an important process equipment of the cement kiln firing system. It has a great relationship with clinker output and quality, the life of refractory materials in the kiln, clinker coal consumption, environmental protection emissions, etc. The main reason that affects the service life of the burner is the damage of the burner lining castable. How to extend the service life of the burner lining castable is particularly important. The four-channel pulverized coal burner of a cement manufacturer uses Al₂O₃-SiC series low-cement refractory castable as a protective lining with a thickness of 100mm. Serious damage occurred to the burner head and bottom 2 months after it was put into use. The main modes of damage are peeling, cracking and peeling.

      Burner Lining Castable Damage

      The damage to the burner lining castable is shown in Figure 1. Take a piece of lining castable from the burner that is completed from outside to inside as a sample, and observe the overall condition of the sample. Divide the residual lining sample into four layers from outside to inside according to different colors. The division of residual lining layers is shown in Figure 2.

      Figure 1 Damage to Burner Lining Castables
      Figure 1 Damage to Burner Lining Castables
      Figure 2 Analysis of 4 Levels of Lining Castables
      Figure 2 Analysis of 4 Levels of Lining Castables

      From the appearance of the damaged castable, it can be clearly seen that the first layer is light yellow and has obvious erosion, indicating that a liquid phase has been produced on the surface of the castable. The second layer appears white and has the loosest structure. The castable has completely deteriorated and is basically a crystallized accumulation of alkali salts. Layer 3 appears light black and has a dense structure, and the aggregate particles in the castable components can be seen. Layer 4 appears gray and has a dense structure. No crystalline material is found. The matrix part of the castable and the aggregate particles can be clearly seen.

      After combining experiments and analyzing its components, a conclusion is drawn.

      • (1) The outer surface of the burner lining castable produces low melting point anorthite and potassium feldspar, which produces a liquid phase at high temperatures, reducing the surface strength of the castable and causing corrosion damage to the castable.
      • (2) The middle brushing of high-temperature secondary air damages the SiO₂ film formed by the oxidation of SiC on the surface of the castable, causing alkali salts to enter the castable to form continuous erosion.
      • (3) The chemical corrosion damage of the burner mainly comes from K salt, which mainly has two aspects: on the one hand, the K salt that penetrates into the castable reacts with the matrix to generate new compounds, destroying the matrix composition of the castable. On the other hand, due to the density difference of the potassium salt itself, volume expansion occurs after deposition and cooling in the castable matrix. The combined effect of two reasons leads to damage to the castable lining.

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        Cost-Effective Low-Cement Castable with Excellent Thermal Shock Stability

        Low cement castable is one of the most widely used castables in thermal kiln linings, with Cost-Effective performance and easy construction. Low-cement castables have the advantages of less water addition, high density, good volume stability, and high strength at high temperatures. However, low-cement castables have poor air permeability and poor thermal shock resistance at high temperatures. When the castable is baked after being demolded, the low-cement castable is prone to bursting, peeling, peeling, etc. In severe cases, it may even damage the entire kiln lining. Therefore, how to improve and enhance the explosion-proof performance of low-cement castables is of great significance to the large-scale application and development of low-cement castables.

        Low Cement Castable Directly from Factory
        Low Cement Castable Directly from Factory

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          How to Increase the Explosion-Proof and Thermal Shock Stability of Low-Cement Castables?

          Rongsheng castable manufacturer, in order to improve the explosion-proof properties of low-cement castables, uses the method of adding explosion-proof fibers to low-cement castables to increase the permeability of the castables. The addition of explosion-proof fiber significantly improves the explosion-proof performance of low-cement castables. After the explosion-proof fiber is added to the castable, the explosion-proof fiber will shrink and melt when the castable is heated and baked after demoulding. Elongated pores are formed in the castable, increasing the opening vents inside the castable and improving the air permeability of the castable. This accelerates the discharge of water vapor, thereby improving the burst resistance of the castable and improving the explosion-proof performance of the castable.

          The overall strength of low cement castables is very high at high temperatures. However, in some thermal kilns that work intermittently, frequent shutdowns and restarts will affect the service life of the low-cement castable working lining. In the case of rapid cooling and heating, it is very easy for the castable lining to peel off and crack, affecting the service life of the low cement castable.

          Rongsheng Unshaped Refractory Castable Manufacturer, adding a certain amount of silicon carbide to low-cement castables will significantly improve the thermal shock stability of low-cement castables when facing rapid cooling and rapid heating conditions. However, the amount of silicon carbide incorporated needs to be strictly controlled. Because silicon carbide has a high thermal conductivity, when too much silicon carbide is added, the overall thermal expansion coefficient of low cement castables will increase, which is detrimental to the thermal shock stability of low cement castables. Castable manufacturers strictly control the amount of silicon carbide added to optimize the thermal stress of low-cement castables caused by excessively high thermal conductivity of silicon carbide. Only then will the low-cement castables have the best thermal shock stability when subjected to thermal shock. .

          Whether low-cement castables need to improve their explosion protection or thermal shock stability, a comprehensive analysis needs to be made based on the working environment, operating temperature, erosion conditions, etc. of the thermal kiln. Then, make a reasonable formula based on the actual use needs of the enterprise’s kiln. The refractory material industry is an industry with very strong practical applications. There is no perfect refractory material. You can only find the most suitable refractory material based on the actual situation.

          Rongsheng Low Cement Silicon Carbide Castable (Al2O3-48%,SiC-30%)
          Rongsheng Silicon Carbide Low Cement Castable

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            Silicon Carbide Composite Refractory Castable

            What happens when silicon carbide is added to low-cement refractory castables? That turns into silicon carbide low cement castable!

            The biggest feature of silicon carbide castable is wear resistance, followed by strong corrosion resistance. Its technological feature is that based on the process of refractory castables, a certain proportion of silicon carbide is added to form a composite refractory castable.

            Because silicon carbide has strong wear resistance, adding it to refractory castables can improve the wear resistance of the castables. Moreover, the wear resistance coefficient of the castable is reduced, and the service life can be increased by 1 to 2 times. Silicon carbide has high thermal conductivity and small thermal expansion coefficient. Adding an appropriate proportion can increase the thermal shock resistance of the castable, and the thermal shock resistance of the castable is also relatively good. Especially for silicon carbide combined with silicon nitride products, the thermal shock resistance will be increased by 2 times compared to the thermal shock of the castable before adding it. It also prevents slagging or skin formation on the surface of the castable.

            However, refractory castables with high silicon carbide content have high thermal conductivity, and the disadvantage of silicon carbide castables is that they are easily oxidized. Manufacturers add metallic silicon powder to the castable to inhibit the oxidation of silicon carbide. Castables combining silicon nitride with silicon carbide have lower oxidation resistance. Because the base material of silicon nitride combined with silicon carbide castable is in the form of interwoven fibers, it has high air permeability and plays a small protective role on silicon carbide particles. In silicate-bonded and silicon oxynitride-bonded silicon carbide products, the surface of the silicon carbide particles is wrapped by a continuous base material. Therefore, it has strong antioxidant properties.

            Silicon carbide castables can maintain high strength and wear resistance at high temperatures, and have good chemical stability and will not be eroded by acid and alkali solutions. In addition, the wetting angle of silicon carbide with molten metal and slag is large. It has good corrosion resistance to various furnace lining solids, liquids and gases.

            Rongsheng Unshaped Refractory Castable Manufacturer

            Rongsheng Unshaped Refractory Castable Materials Manufacturer is a powerful manufacturer of refractory materials production and sales. Our environmentally friendly, fully automatic unshaped refractory material production line ensures the smooth delivery of unshaped refractory materials. Moreover, our professional technical team can customize the refractory castable formula according to the actual working conditions of the kiln lining to ensure the long service life of the refractory lining. Contact us to get free samples and quotes.

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